Interested Reader starts here

The average OJT period is a 3-6 month learning process in which a potential Facilitator learns from his co-workers around him this trade that we call Facilitation to form the profitable product that we call Team-Building or Adventure-Learning programs. Less than half of these people will make it to the position of AFP. Those who do, learn to hone a variety of skills by learning or stealing from those who have come before them.

This article is a guide to surviving this challenging time.

During the approximate 5 month OJT period following the Basic Facilitator Course potential Facilitators will learn by supporting established Facilitators on their programs until they themselves are ready to begin leading their own programs. In the 5 months between BFC and the eventual Solo Check individuals have the opportunity to learn the so called “tricks of the trade” from several different Facilitators. I Solo Checked 20 months after my BFC, a fact that served me as both a blessing and a curse. A blessing because I had the good fortune of being part of programs led by 15 different Facilitators and I was able to gain a little bit of knowledge from each one of them. A curse because my OJT was broken into several parts, causing me to be ready to move on to different and more challenging alternatives to the scripted activities before I had formed the sound foundation of mastering the scripts. However this has given me the insight to feel that I can share my experiences and opinions to help future OJTs.

Casual Reader Starts Here

Future Facilitators must have the following qualities if they hope to continue in this career field: inherent intelligence, be proactive, perseverance, kleptomania, patience, optimism, foresight, adaptability, and confidence.

Inherent Intelligence:

Facilitators are constantly interacting with and being surrounded by professionals. Whether they are on program, in the office, or at a training session; Facilitators must be able to communicate with the same level of professionalism as those around them. They must be able to hold conversations with other intelligent individuals without making themselves look inferior. Luckily intelligence is not measured by how much knowledge we have already stored, but instead by our ability to absorb and store new information. Facilitators continue to improve and add to their store of knowledge by learning from their experiences, others, reading and writing articles or books, and attending additional training sessions. This may seem tedious and overwhelming at first as you will already have a large amount of literature from the scripts that you are memorizing, but to continue to develop it is essential.

Be Proactive:

When you first begin as an OJT your value to the team around you will be minimal. Eventually you become a great asset as you learn to run challenge stations, Low Elements, MAPs, attraction activities (rafting, geocaching, etc…) and eventually openings and closings. Most Facilitators are helpful and are happy to help you learn activities, but they are all also busy and will not have time to worry about scheduling you on programs. To do this you need to be as proactive as possible and attach yourself to as many programs as possible, on the occasions that you are not on program you need to be reading the literature or practicing activities. You also need to be proactive in the sense that you need to make yourself useful. Even before you can conduct activities you can prepare logistics, or help with program preparation. This is when you will learn the valuable knowledge of preparing Geocaching booklets or rollercoaster sets which will be essential for your development. Finally being proactive and having a greater role in the behind the scenes work will help you make a better rapport with the Facilitators, which will help you later.


“If at first you don’t succeed try, try again” and trust me even if you get it right the first time, by the third time you will have screwed it up at least once. When you do you will here about it in your feedback. Don’t take this personally, every Facilitator has messed up at some point and has also had to hear it from his superiors. In a way this is a right of passage, but it is not intended to upset or anger you, it is designed to improve you in the most direct way possible. Some Facilitators are harsher than others but none of them would waste their time debriefing you just to give you and insult, so look for the lesson you can learn. The work load put on OJTs as they develop can also seem overwhelming to some, I cannot say that the workload will get smaller. But, you will get faster at completing it and eventually better compensated for it.


Yes Kleptomania, but do not start going through people’s desk, I mean start stealing people’s thoughts. You will slowly learn that a unique Facilitation style is actually just a combination of that Facilitator’s favorite parts of his coworkers’ styles stolen, slightly altered, and meshed together. Listen carefully to your lead Facilitators; they may have a different way of doing expectations, a different joke added during opening or an activity, or a different debrief point than you have heard before. Your job is to learn from them, therefore its all fair game. Just remember though, if you steal from one source its plagiarism, if you steal from multiple sources it’s an original idea. However I will warn you not to make the same mistakes that I did; if you steal every opening joke from all the Facilitators that you have heard than your opening will be over an hour and a half long and you will appear more like a struggling comedian than a Facilitator.


As you start to progress as an OJT you will begin to feel like you have mastered the more simple parts of the job. You are probably giving yourself too much credit by saying mastering because we are all still learning. However there may come a time when you are competent with your logistics, lights and music, challenge stations, and even MAP; but must continue doing these activities for maybe even months without progressing any further. This is the nature of the business; we do not decide when programs will be or what will be done in them. Therefore when you are given the opportunity to do High E, rafting, opening, or closing; take it. If these options do not come up continue doing your MAPs and Low E’s, but start paying more attention to the planning part of programs. Helping other Facilitators plan is the best way to prepare yourself for eventually leading programs.


Don’t let it get you down. You will hit many bumps in the road when you first start out, but since you will be given less responsibility these mistakes will not hurt the program too badly. Later in your OJT period when you are leading your own programs you will have much more responsibility, and there will still be little bumps. After all we are learning by doing here and nobody learns to ride a bike without getting a scraped knee or two. Nobody plans to make mistakes, but when you do stay positive, getting down on yourself will not help anything. This is especially true when you are leading a program and trying to project your energy and confidence to participants. You will have plenty of time to brood after your co-Faci scolds you during debrief, but even then you need to try to stay positive and learn from your mistakes.


One of the more advanced skills that OJTs learn, and probably the trait I struggle the most with is foresight. Good Facilitators do not just plan the activities and meals for a program, they plan for any possible problems there may be along the way. This goes beyond planning wet weather activities and moves into the never ending world of “what ifs.” For example: what if a participant sprains an ankle while geocaching, what if the bus is late, what if the food is late, what if the participants are late, what if the participants refuse to do an activity, what if the participants have done the activity already, etc…I think you get the idea. So how do you learn this skill? One thing that helps is to make check list, one thing that helps more is to work with experienced facilitators. Tag yourself on programs with the AFFs and higher, most of the eventualities have happened to them before and they can best prepare you for them.


Talking about eventualities and inevitabilities, they happen. Buses are late, participants get hurt/sick, things don’t go as planned. As a Facilitator the program must go on no matter what. I have seen guys frantically replacing safety straps on the TCH minutes before the participants arrived while the lead used a number of energizers and brain teasers to keep them occupied. Moral of the story is that sometimes stuff happens, you just have to deal with it. The only constant on Earth is change, if you haven’t accepted that yet, now is the time.


In the Final stages of your OJT period your coworkers will start to feel less like supporters and more like testers. It is common for an OJT leading a program to constantly be questioned about their decisions. To combat this, always have an answer. If you have properly planned a program you have a reason for all of the things that you do and therefore should have confidence in your work. Even if your decision turns out not to be the best one at that time, it was still your decision to make and you should have confidence in it. If you do not show confidence in your work you will never be able to control a program and lead the team around you.

So far this paper has analyzed you the OJT and has passed on one person’s advice to help you better yourself during this trying period. The following paragraph analyzes the facilitators you will be working with during this time.


All Facilitators are different and have different strengths. Some will show great “stage presence” and will have very high energy programs. Others will take a less flamboyant approach but may have the best debriefs. While the rest may specialize in program preparation and development and be able to produce a much higher calibre program. In truth Facilitators will show all of these traits in differing and varying degrees so you should do your best to work with all of them (even the ones you may not like).

I will further break Facilitators down based on their approach to OJTs. Some will be very nurturing, helping you with your progress and providing positive feedback. Enjoy your time with and try to learn something from these Facilitators. However try not to become complacent just because you’re not being yelled at. Some will be indifferent, putting you where they need you and providing little feedback. These people may seem too busy to worry about you, but still they will be providing feedback about you when it comes time for the solo check decision so you better be proactive on their programs. The final group is critical. They will expect you to take on more responsibility in their programs and they will provide you plenty of feedback no matter how negative it may be. I like to think that this group is of the mindset “you don’t know the quality of your tea until you put it in hot water.” Whereas they might not be the best for your morale, this group is the best at preparing you for the next level; especially in the weeks leading up to your solo check. Try to find a nice balance of these three groups to work with throughout the entire OJT process if you want to be fully prepared on the morning of your solo check.

Well that’s it, and take it for what it is. One person’s opinion and advice about the process. If you find that your experience is or was different, please put down your name and continue the story






If you follow the news about SMRT, you would find much information about how that day of unexpected delays happened. Having spoken to friends who work in SMRT, the picture they
painted wasn’t pretty, no doubt the trains would hit a point of critical mass. This inspired a story, one about SAW-ing too, well sawing trees that is.

There was once a lumberjack who provided firewood to the neighboring villages. He had a small little cottage in the woods and a few helping hands who diligently worked for him. His father had tended to the forest, so did his father’s father and so will his son, Peter. Being the loving father that he is, he wanted the best for his son and sent his son around the kingdom for an education.

Peter was exposed to the world and was very fascinated with everything sparkling and new. He was amazed at how fast the rest of the world was compared to his tiny little cottage in the forest.Through his travels an idea formed and brewed, one that would definitely make his father proud.

After a few years of traveling around the region, Peter finally returned. He approached his father with his new ideas and they were received with a warm smile. His father listened intently and nodded in approval. “Take my axe,” said the old lumberjack.

With his ideas set into action, he became a very busy man. He got himself brand new chainsaws, bulldozers and all kinds of strong looking machinery from the friends he met around the kingdom. He sent out fliers for workers and employed a whole lot more workers. Peter was turning his quiet forest into a booming business.

All his plans worked, money was flowing in and so were contracts. As the years went by, his business got better and better. He wanted more. It was all not enough. He did his mathematics and an idea struck him. His best ever idea. He took the idea to his father but his father only frowned. Old ideas need to make way for newer ones, thought Peter to himself and he ignored his father’s objection.

So one day he walked amongst his workers and selectively handed out envelopes. You see, these envelopes contained letters of goodbye. He realized that he could hire stronger workers who were younger, faster and cheaper. All of his dad’s workers were sent home. He started to hire workers based on how strong they were.

True enough, his business doubled! Peter wagged his success in front of his father but the old lumberjack merely shook his head.

Ten years passed and Peter was highly successful. The old lumberjack watched his son’s growth and frowned for he knew better. Success to him was not measured by wealth. Within that year, his workers reported to him a problem: the forest was shrinking. It wasn’t because the trees were not growing fast enough, but somehow usable land was growing more and more
scarce. He sought desperately to solve the problem yet none of his workers could help him. They had never encountered such a situation before!

By the end of the year, the company’s productivity had dropped to only half of the previous year’s produce. By the end of the following year, the company was in debt. He needed guidance. He swallowed his pride and approached his father for help.

The old lumberjack looked at his son and sighed. This was what he predicted ten years ago. Being a lumberjack wasn’t just about chopping down trees faster. It was about maintaining the balance in the ecosystem and most of all allowing the forest to thrive. Being a lumberjack was never about felling trees only; A true lumberjack was also the guardian of the forest. Peter had over harvested the forest and the land was not given enough time to rest. Without the experience of the older workers, there was no one who could warn Peter of this impending problem over the course of the years. He couldn’t see that his actions were harming the forest and not protecting it because he was blinded by ambition. The old lumberjack knew what needed to be done.

In this story who was to err?

Was it Peter for his ambition and greed? No doubt he was greedy and wanted more, but he did bring the company to greater heights and provided his family with abundance.

Or was it the old lumberjack’s fault for not stopping his son when he saw what was coming ? He wanted to give his son a chance to take over the company and giving him a chance means allowing him to take full responsibility, for all its successes and failures too isn’t it?

We often find this problem in organizations and in our own daily lives. Just to meet targets and achieve instant results, we use instant methods. Yet in many things in life, instant results may result in instant failure. There are so many examples of companies who seek maximum profits and start laying off their senior staff but they didn’t realize that its not the paychecks that they were cutting out, its the wealth of knowledge and experience contained in these people that is cut out. Then again, at what point do we decide that old methodology is outdated? On a personal level, we may make the mistake of taking shortcuts just to reach our targets faster. Just think about it, weren’t there times in your life when you chose to take the shorter route and it turned out to cause more trouble for you? An important idiom to remember: Rome wasn’t built in a day; so let’s start brick by brick.






The Art of Listening (We hear everyday but do we listen?) by Terence Tan


Communication has always been a key factor of how people, teams and organizations operate. But what are some of the things that we as individuals can do to help create that environment of openness and where we don’t stereotype or judge other?

Here is a consolidation of examples and questions on communication to ponder about, which we can use for our own development as well as for debrief during our programmes, especially for facilitators.

Part 1 – I wonder how well I listen…
1) Do I withhold judgment until I hear the entire story?

2) How many of the important facts do I usually remember?

3) Do I listen from the other person’s point of view?

4) How many questions do I raise to clarify an issue I know vaguely of?

5) What efforts do I make to check out disputed points with other sources?

Part 2 – I wonder why my communications breakdown…
1) Do I close up or open up when a misunderstanding occurs?

2) How often do I resist new ideas because they don’t fit my style or pattern of doing things?

3) Do I talk to people, but ignore their reactions and behaviours?

4) Have I always insisted on having the last word?

5) Do I listen and think before I act?

6) Do I use too many words to present a simple idea?

Part 3 – I wonder how interpersonal conflicts get started…
1) Do I think first before discounting others’ ideas?

2) Have I always commanded rather than invited ideas or actions?

3) Am I interested primarily in self-promotion… or just appear to be?

4) Do I frequently procrastinate when a decision is needed?

5) Do I expect others to read my mind or to understand what I am thinking?

6) Do I tend to make others think I am rubbing them the wrong way?

7) Am I often misunderstood?

Part 4 – I wonder what I can do to be a better listener…
1) Don’t pretend to know it all?

2) Avoid telling people what and how they should think

3) Admit your mistakes without the excuses

4) Encourage each other to keep the best interests of the group in mind

5) If you think you disagree, ask the other person to explain or clarify

6) Find out if the disagreement is about the details or the conclusion drawn

7) Find out exactly what the problem is before trying to work out the solutions

8) Make it easy for everyone to “give in” or to contribute a little

9) Use other examples or hypothetical situations as a case study to solve a hot problem or issue

10) Lastly, show your appreciation and thank others for really listening to you





Cracking the code
Once you have ascertained your best-fit personality type according to the MBTI, the next step to learning more about yourself is by finding out your unique cognitive process. The 4-letter type code that describes your core personality is actually hiding your dominant and auxiliary mental processes within it. These are mental patterns by which you exercise most often everyday. However, in order to discover what your cognitive processes are, you will have to “crack the code”. Come, let me show you and we shall discover the unique “YOU”.

In any 4-letter type code, the middle 2 letters represent, what is known, as the functional pair. This pair of letters essentially describes how we prefer to take in information from the outer world and how we make our decisions based on whatever information we have received. For example, an ENTP’s functional pair would be NT. This means that this is a person who experiences hunches and may tend to read “between the lines” in another person’s words. An NT would then make decisions via an analytical, logical approach but with “intuitive” information that supports a decision. It is through these letters that we can derive our cognitive processes, where every letter in the functional pair has an extraverted and introverted nature.

Step 1:
Look at the last letter of your 4-letter type code. If it is J, then this means that the T or F in the code is used in the external world. If it is P, then this means that the S or N in the code is used in the external world. For example, if your type code is ISTJ, you would exhibit extraverted thinking as a cognitive function.

Step 2:

So since one of the letters in the functional pair has been labeled, naturally the other letter would exhibit its introverted nature. In the ISTJ example, introverted sensing would be displayed along with the above-mentioned extraverted thinking. You can label both cognitive processes as Si and Te.

Step 3:

So between the two processes, which is dominant and which is auxiliary? Simple. If your 4-letter type code starts with an E, then your dominant process is the one with an extraverted nature. If your type code starts with an I, then your dominant process is the one with an introverted nature. In the example of an ISTJ, this means that an ISTJ leads with introverted sensing as his dominant process and is supported by extraverted thinking as his auxiliary process.

The 8 Cognitive Processes Elaborated

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing occurs when we become aware of what is in the physical world in rich detail. We may be drawn to act on what we experience to get an immediate result. We notice relevant facts and occurrences in a sea of data and experiences, learning all the facts we can about the immediate context or area of focus and what goes on in that context. An active seeking of more and more input to get the whole picture may occur until all sources of input have been exhausted or something else captures our attention. Extraverted Sensing is operating when we freely follow exciting physical impulses or instincts as they come up and enjoy the thrill of action in the present moment. A oneness with the physical world and a total absorption may exist as we move, touch, and sense what is around us. The process involves instantly reading cues to see how far we can go in a situation and still get the impact we want or respond to the situation with presence.

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Sensing often involves storing data and information, then comparing and contrasting the current situation with similar ones. The immediate experience or words are instantly linked with the prior experiences, and we register a similarity or a difference—for example, noticing that some food doesn’t taste the same or is saltier than it usually is. Introverted Sensing is also operating when we see someone who reminds us of someone else. Sometimes a feeling associated with the recalled image comes into our awareness along with the information itself. Then the image can be so strong, our body responds as if reliving the experience. The process also involves reviewing the past to draw on the lessons of history, hindsight, and experience. With introverted Sensing, there is often great attention to detail and getting a clear picture of goals and objectives and what is to happen. There can be a oneness with ageless customs that help sustain civilization and culture and protect what is known and long-lasting, even while what is reliable changes.

Extraverted Intuiting

Extraverted intuiting involves noticing hidden meanings and interpreting them, often entertaining a wealth of possible interpretations from just one idea or interpreting what someone’s behavior really means. It also involves seeing things “as if,” with various possible representations of reality. Using this process, we can juggle many different ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and meanings in our mind at once with the possibility that they are all true. This is like weaving themes and threads together. We don’t know the weave until a thought thread appears or is drawn out in the interaction of thoughts, often brought in from other contexts. Thus a strategy or concept often emerges from the here-and-now interactions, not appearing as a whole beforehand. Using this process we can really appreciate brainstorming and trust what emerges, enjoying imaginative play with scenarios and combining possibilities, using a kind of cross-contextual thinking. Extraverted intuiting also can involve catalyzing people and extemporaneously shaping situations, spreading an atmosphere of change through emergent leadership.

Introverted Intuiting

Introverted intuiting involves synthesizing the seemingly paradoxical or contradictory, which takes understanding to a new level. Using this process, we can have moments when completely new, unimagined realizations come to us. A disengagement from interactions in the room occurs, followed by a sudden “Aha!” or “That’s it!” The sense of the future and the realizations that come from introverted iNtuiting have a sureness and an imperative quality that seem to demand action and help us stay focused on fulfilling our vision or dream of how things will be in the future. Using this process, we might rely on a focal device or symbolic action to predict, enlighten, or transform. We could find ourselves laying out how the future will unfold based on unseen trends and telling signs. This process can involve working out complex concepts or systems of thinking or conceiving of symbolic or novel ways to understand things that are universal. It can lead to creating transcendent experiences or solutions.

Extraverted Thinking

Contingency planning, scheduling, and quantifying utilize the process of extraverted Thinking. Extraverted Thinking helps us organize our environment and ideas through charts, tables, graphs, flow charts, outlines, and so on. At its most sophisticated, this process is about organizing and monitoring people and things to work efficiently and productively. Empirical thinking is at the core of extraverted thinking when we challenge someone’s ideas based on the logic of the facts in front of us or lay out reasonable explanations for decisions or conclusions made, often trying to establish order in someone else’s thought process. In written or verbal communication, extraverted Thinking helps us easily follow someone else’s logic, sequence, or organization. It also helps us notice when something is missing, like when someone says he or she is going to talk about four topics and talks about only three. In general, it allows us to compartmentalize many aspects of our lives so we can do what is necessary to accomplish our objectives.

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Thinking often involves finding just the right word to clearly express an idea concisely, crisply, and to the point. Using introverted Thinking is like having an internal sense of the essential qualities of something, noticing the fine distinctions that make it what it is and then naming it. It also involves an internal reasoning process of deriving subcategories of classes and sub-principles of general principles. These can then be used in problem solving, analysis, and refining of a product or an idea. This process is evidenced in behaviors like taking things or ideas apart to figure out how they work. The analysis involves looking at different sides of an issue and seeing where there is inconsistency. In so doing, we search for a “leverage point” that will fix problems with the least amount of effort or damage to the system. We engage in this process when we notice logical inconsistencies between statements and frameworks, using a model to evaluate the likely accuracy of what’s observed.

Extraverted Feeling

The process of extraverted feeling often involves a desire to connect with (or disconnect from) others and is often evidenced by expressions of warmth (or displeasure) and self-disclosure. The “social graces,” such as being polite, being nice, being friendly, being considerate, and being appropriate, often revolve around the process of extraverted feeling. Keeping in touch, laughing at jokes when others laugh, and trying to get people to act kindly to each other also involve extraverted feeling. Using this process, we respond according to expressed or even unexpressed wants and needs of others. We may ask people what they want or need or self-disclose to prompt them to talk more about themselves. This often sparks conversation and lets us know more about them so we can better adjust our behavior to them. Often with this process, we feel pulled to be responsible and take care of others’ feelings, sometimes to the point of not separating our feelings from theirs. We may recognize and adhere to shared values, feelings, and social norms to get along.






The participant who talks too much:

A way to approach the dominant participant and pull in non-participants is to redirect the discussion to another person or another topic.  Alternatively, facilitators may wish to reframe their comments, making them viable additions to the discussion.  Facilitators might also ask one or more members of the group to act as observers for a few sessions, reporting back their observations to the group. Perhaps, assigning the avid talker to the observer role would help the person develop sensitivity.  Another approach is to break down the group into smaller task groups.

The participant who will not talk:

A way to approach participants is to provide opportunities for smaller group discussions or pair-share discussions. Smaller groups may help put some participants at ease. A second strategy is to ask opinion questions occasionally (e.g., “How do you feel about this?”). This may encourage participation by reducing participants’ fear of answering incorrectly. Another strategy is to have participants write out their answers to a question. Having the words written out may make it easier for a shy or fearful person to speak up.

The participant who is dominant:

Give the participant responsibility within the group or a role in which he or she has to fulfil. Reinforce alternative behaviour and introduce a quota system, in which each participant is given three stones or bits of paper, and they have to give one up every time they speak. When they have no more, they cannot speak again.

The discussion that turns into an argument:

In good discussions, conflicts will sometimes arise. If such conflicts are left ambiguous, they may cause continuing trouble. Some useful strategies in tackling these situations are as follows:

If the solution depends on certain facts, the facilitator can ask participants to refer to the text or another authority.

If there is an experimentally verified answer, the facilitator can use the opportunity to review the method by which the answer could be determined.

If the question is one of values, the facilitator may use the occasion to help participants become aware of the values involved.

The facilitator can list both sides of the argument on the board.

The facilitator can take a strong position as moderator, preventing participants from interrupting each other or speaking simultaneously. Facilitators can lay ground rules for discussion, such as asking participants to focus conflict on ideas rather than people and to resist being judgmental.

Unclear or hesitant comments:

The facilitator can encourage participants, who make unclear contributions, to give examples and factual evidence of their points. The facilitator can also restate points for verification or rejection by the participants, or give enthusiastic nonverbal cues and patience.

The discussion that goes off track:

Some facilitators keep discussions on track by listing the questions or issues they want to cover on the board or summarizing the discussion on the board as it proceeds. Stopping and asking a participant to summarize where the discussion is at the point it appears to go off track may also help.

The participant who verbally attacks the facilitator:

When participants argue for the sake of argument, facilitators might lose the battle if they are drawn into it.  Participants who verbally attack facilitators often want attention, so simply giving them some recognition while firmly moving on often takes care of the problem. If participants are simply trying to embarrass the facilitator, they may seek to make him or her defensive with such comments as, “How do you really know that…?” or “You’re not really saying that…?” Such questions can be handled by playing boomerang. The facilitator might say, “What I’m saying is…, but now I’d like you to share your perspective.” Turning the question back to that participant forces him or her to take responsibility for his or her opinion.

Additional strategies to handle these situations include:

  1. Confrontation

Facilitators can confront the questioner with their reactions to his or her behaviour. “I am uncomfortable with your questions and remarks. What I really hear you saying is, And I would like to hear…”

  1. Active listening

Facilitators can paraphrase the message they heard and check out the accuracy of their assumptions before responding.

  1. Locating

Facilitators can ask the participant to explain the context behind the question.

  1. Deferring

Often, the best strategy is to invite participants to come up after the session and arrange for a time to talk about the disagreement further, and then move the discussion on to another topic.





I only realised it was lunch time when I felt a rumbling feeling in my tummy and during that point, I didn’t realise how hungry I was. I started to call out to my colleagues to go lunch
together and after gathering a few people, we were set to go. We took a small van and we managed to squeeze everybody in it. I was behind the wheel and we were chatting merrily
with each other about work and some random stuff when we came upon a down slope. As I negotiated the slope, I noticed there were two birds on the left side of the road and I didn’t
take much notice of it. I was nearing to where the birds were when the birds took a sudden decision to dash across the road. I had to tap the brakes to avoid running over the birds and
because of this reaction, the merry conversation that we were having was abruptly interrupted and followed by silence. I looked back to see if everybody was okay and fortunately nothing happened. I explained what had happened and everybody thought it was kind of funny. Putting the little commotion aside, we continued our conversation and head down to our lunch destination.

After coming back from lunch, feeling satisfied, contented and full, I started to recall the whole incident. It got me thinking; why did the birds choose to cross the road, instead of flying off and over the road? That decision will only be known to the birds…


“The set of competencies that a person is born with or are his innate qualities making him perfect for certain skills and tasks are referred to as his abilities. Abilities are often the result of the genetic makeup of a person. Because of this, we see some people good at computer programming (it comes naturally for them) while others might be good at physical sports, and yet others at languages and dances. Ability is something that is either there or lacking. There are people with the ability to learn languages while there are also people who find it hard to learn a new language. If you ask a girl to become a ballerina without having the ability, she would struggle to master the nuances and her performances may not look natural at all. This is in sharp contrast to a girl having the natural flair for dancing and has a rhythmic body.


“If you are good at lifting weights and are a budding weightlifter, it is clear that you have the ability to lift weights, but there is certainly a limit to your ability to lift weights. For example,
you may have no difficulty in lifting weights up to 150 KG but, beyond that, you may fail miserably. Thus, it would be better to say that the man has a capability to lift up to 150 KG of
weight. Capability, as the name implies, certainly places a cap on the ability of a person. However, it is also the potential that a kid can realize if he has the ability in a particular field.”
If a kid of 5 has the ability to perform basic gymnastic exercises, experts assess the kid’s capability in terms of his/her potential. If a player makes his debut shows glimpses of his
brilliance, selectors realize his capability and give him chances to live up to his potential in later games.”


Each of us has our own ability and it can be anything under the sun. Some of us realise it, and some of us don’t. Some of us have a unique ability and some of us share certain ability with others. When we were young, we looked up at actors, actresses, athletes, politicians and other famous people and ponder if we can be as strong, famous and influential as them. We have the capability to be like them, but decisions making, planning, luck and fate play a big part during the journey.






During my time in University I had one very influential professor whose favorite quote was : “the only thing better than being smart is sounding smart.” Some people may not agree with this statement; however my university found that this man was valuable enough to fly him down from his other job inWashington DC where he worked as aWhite House advisor three days a week. And, many Fortune 500 companies found him valuable enough to pay him big bucks to teach his writing style to their employees.

I will now pass along a few of his simpler speaking and writing tips.

1st It is imperative that at all times you speak and write with authority using only the active voice. (what is the active voice you ask) the active voice quite simply is the absence of the passive voice. (what’s that?) the passive voice is the one that we use most commonly, but we often do this shun responsibility for our comments.


Passive Voice

The car was red and it was going too fast so it had an accident.

Active Voice

The driver caused the accident by driving his red car too fast.
As you can see the active voice gives responsibility and immediacy to all of the words.

The car was red: the car is always red, or maybe it was recently painted and is now blue.
The red car: there is no doubt about the details of this car’s color

The car was going too fast: it is true the car was going too fast, but why? Surely it was not doing it by itself.
The driver drove the car too fast: this puts the responsibility on the driver, not the car.

The car had an accident: why?
The driver caused the accident: ooo that’s why!

Example finished:

The active voice is more direct and more professional. It also makes it seem like you have the facts and know what you are talking about, not that you are leaving out details that you don’t know.

2nd USE SPELLING AND GRAMMAR CHECK!!!! Though studies show that correct spelling is not essential to relay the meaning of what you are saying, nothing is more embarrassing in a professional setting. I repeatedly hear participants comment on the numerous grammar errors on the signs we have in the bathrooms.

3rd do not use contractions, just don’t do it. Contractions were introduced into the English language as a form of short hand writing derived from people speaking the language incorrectly. It is normal in casual conversation or even casual emails. It looks bad in proposals and marketing material.


1st As we mentioned before use the active voice whenever it is possible. In actuality it is always possible to avoid the passive voice, but this is not easy to do so start out by reducing how often you use it.

2nd Do not use slang. Each culture has their own slang words, mine is aint. It means am not, therefore I say am not when speaking to participants.

3rd Train yourself to stop using pause words. I had a high school teacher take off one point for every pause word we used in presentations. Some of us would have negative scores if we were graded now. It is not easy but we must eliminate: uh, um, ah, ok, and alright. (Like I said, not easy)


Changing language will never happen over night, however if we practice and politely remind each other of our mistakes we will slowly improve.

Changing writing can happen immediately if you are willing to sacrifice the time. You should already be using spell check. Now after you use spell check use (Ctrl F) and search for anywhere in your paper that you have used these words: am, is, are, was, were, be, been. (that’s right, no linking verbs) wherever you find these words you have used the passive voice and should reword the sentence into the active voice.

This will be a good first step towards speaking and writing at the highest level of professionalism. Our company is a leading brand in our field, it is time that we started looking and sounding like it.

(note: this article did not use any of the advice that I have written when it was made.)

(Note: this article did use the advice that I have written when I made it.)

-Notice the difference in the flow of the article.

Sounding Smart

During my time in University I had one very influential professor whose favorite quote stated: “the only thing better than being smart is sounding smart.” Some people may not agree with this statement; however my university considered this man valuable enough to fly him down from his other job inWashington DC where he worked as aWhite House advisor three days a week. And, many Fortune 500 companies found him valuable enough to pay him impressive amounts to teach his writing style to their employees.

I will now pass along a few of his simpler speaking and writing tips.

1st professionals must speak with authority, using only the active voice at all times. (How can you recognize the use of the active voice?) The active voice quite simply represents the absence of the passive voice. (How can I recognize the passive voice?) People speak using the passive voice most of the time in order to shun responsibility for their comments.


Passive Voice

The car was red and it was going too fast so it had an accident.

Active Voice

The driver caused the accident by driving his red car too fast.
As you can see the active voice gives responsibility and immediacy to
all of the words.

The car was red: the car is always red, or maybe it was recently painted and is now blue.
The red car: there is no doubt about the details of this car’s color

The car was going too fast: it is true the car was going too fast, but why? Surely it was not doing it by itself.
The driver drove the car too fast: this puts the responsibility on the driver, not the car.

The car had an accident: why?
The driver caused the accident: ooo that is why!

Example finished:

Professionals using the active voice sound more direct and professional than those who do not. It also makes it seem like you have the facts and knowledge of the subject matter, not like they have left out details because they do not know them.

2nd USE SPELLING AND GRAMMAR CHECK!!!! Though, studies have shown that authors do not need to spell correctly to properly relay the meaning of their work. It spares them from the embarrassment of spelling incorrectly in a professional setting. I repeatedly hear participants comment on the numerous grammar errors on the signs we have in the bathrooms.

3rd do not use contractions, just “don’t” do it. Contractions began in the English language as a form of short hand writing derived from people speaking the language incorrectly. Speakers often use contractions in casual conversation or even casual emails. However, it looks bad in proposals and marketing material.


1st As mentioned before, orators should use the active voice whenever possible. In actuality orators could always avoid the passive voice, but this may prove challenging, so start
out by reducing how often you use it.

2nd Do not use slang. Each culture has its own slang words; I use the slang word “aint.” It means “am not”, therefore I say “am not” when speaking to participants.

3rd Train yourself to stop using pause words. I had a high school teacher take off one point for every pause word we used during presentations. Some of us would have negative scores if a teacher graded our presentations now. It may challenge your vernacular, but we must eliminate: uh, um, ah, ok, and alright. (Like I said, not easy)


Changing language will never happen over night, however if we practice and politely remind each other of our mistakes we will slowly improve.

Changing writing can happen immediately if you apply yourself and sacrifice the needed time. You should already use spell check. Now after you use spell check use (Ctrl F) and search for anywhere in your paper that you have used these words: am, is, are, was, were, be, been. (That is right, no linking verbs) wherever you find these words you have used the passive voice and should reword the sentence into the active voice.

This serves as a good first step towards speaking and writing at the highest level of professionalism. Our company recently received recognition as a leading brand in our field, we should start looking and sounding like it.







‘The Invisible Gorilla’ – Suppose you are asked to watch a video of two teams of basketball players passing balls around. One team is dressed in white while the other black. As you are watching, you are tasked to count the number of passes made by the players in white. Midway through the video, a man in a gorilla costume walks into the middle of the action, thumps his chest and slowly walks out the other side. Do you think you would notice the gorilla? It seems silly to ask this question because the answer is obviously “yes”.

However, when this experiment was conducted at Harvard University several years ago, more than half the participants failed to notice the gorilla. They were so focused on counting the passes that they completely missed the chest-thumping ape. This study, titled ‘The Invisible Gorilla’ by psychologists Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, is one of the most best-known experiments and it shows that our attention has a capacity limit – we can only consciously read and process a limited amount of information at any one time.

At any given moment, facilitators are exposed to vast amount of sensory information, each vying for his attention. It is humanly impossible to process every bit of information at the same time due to the limited mental bandwidth we operate with. Any attempt to consciously stretch this bandwidth will only result in exhausting our mental state and lowering our sense of awareness. Try focusing on every object in the space you are at right now for 60 seconds. What was it like? How did you feel? I bet once the 60 seconds are up, your mind would immediately switch to a ‘break’ mode and go blank for a few moments.

To make up for this inherent shortcoming, facilitators need to operate with a high level of Situation Awareness (SA). SA is the ability to recognize, process and comprehend important elements of information in a given situation. Dr. Mica Endsley, recognized by many as a pioneer and leader in the study and application of SA, defined it as:

‘…the Perception of the Elements in the Environment within a Volume of Time and Space, the Comprehension of their Meaning, and the Projection of their Status in the Near Future.’

In simpler terms, it means making sense of the current situation and mentally mapping out cause-and-effect relationships.

SA is the radar that operates at the subconsciously level, constantly scanning the surroundings for abnormalities and providing updates to our mental model. Like an air-traffic control tower radar that is continuously feeding the traffic controllers with information, it identifies aircrafts that are flying too fast or heading towards the wrong runway while at the same time, provides the controllers with the most updated view of the air space.

Aside from detecting abnormalities, SA is also allows facilitators to capture information that are subtle yet significant. While a facilitator cannot control the amount of sensory elements present, he can however determine the types of elements to focus on. The more acute his SA is, the more sensitive he will be to his surroundings and this places him in a better position to anticipate changes and introduce timely intervention.

High level of SA enables facilitators to:

1) Maintain a high level of safety.
Prevention is better than cure. Having a high SA would lead to a heighten sense of anticipation. Because facilitators are able to project the plausible consequences of the current situation, this gives them that extra second to introduce preventive measures or eliminates threats before they turned into actual risks.

2) Identify opportunities to enhance the learning experience.
Seeing things that others do not is one of the hallmark of effective facilitation. While most would focus on actions that are at the heart of the activity, seldom would participants reflect on the minor incidents – incidences that come as quickly as they go. Part of SA is about being sensitive to these minor, and to many, insignificant incidences. Insightful learning, the kind that people do not recognize at first but seems so apparent when pointed out, are created when facilitators are able to spot these opportunities and create meaning off them.

3) Adjust delivery style.
Another hallmark of effective facilitation is the facilitator’s ability to adjust his delivery style. Once in a while, concerned and discomforted participants will question the facilitators’ style of delivery, but these are exceptions to the rule. In the Asian context, out of respect to the facilitators, most participants tend to keep to themselves and go with the flow. Not knowing what participants are truly feeling is a major stumbling block because the facilitator might be thinking he is doing the ‘right’ thing and would continue doing so.

By the time participants surface their concerns, it might already be too late because the damage is done. Two common cases are; 1) When the facilitator is being too strict with the rules. 2) When the facilitator uses languages that some participants are uncomfortable with. For example, jokes on sexual orientation might not fit well with participants who are strong believer of the LGBT social movement.

However, when facilitators are able to detect signs of discomfort, or feel a sense of passive aggressiveness from the participants early, they can make the necessary adjustments to their delivery before more damages are done.

4) Making better decisions, spontaneously.
Facilitators make spontaneous decisions all the time because no matter how well the programmes are designed and planned, it is not possible to factor in every possible variable. Seasoned facilitators have countless tales of curveball anecdotes. In order to make better and more informed snap decisions to respond to changing and emerging patterns, facilitators need to stay two steps ahead of the situation. For example, knowing what to do the moment grey clouds are spotted or how to adjust the programme in the event of a delay in catering services.

Here is the good news – SA is not an inborn ability that is bestowed to a lucky few. SA is an ability that facilitators can work on and be better at, it is a sense that can be trained, like a highly trained nurse who can read the faintest of pulse or a skilled wine sommelier who can give a full description with a single sip. Increased exposure and field time is widely acknowledged as key pillars in building up one’s SA. In a series of studies conducted by researcher Gary Klein on how experts in various fields make spontaneous decision in urgent situations, he found out that these individuals are able to tap on the wealth of experiences they have amassed over years of practice and understanding. One of the better-known case studies is about a seasoned fire fighter, who made the decision to pull his team out of a burning building moment before it collapsed, though there were no obvious signs of any structural damage. In an interview later, the fire fighter said he felt a hunch and something in his mind told him that the building was going to give way soon, and that made him pulled his team out.

Although experience is key to the development of SA, paradoxically, experience is also SA biggest enemy because the more experienced a facilitator is, the more likely he will fall into a routine mindset, let his senses down and allow complacency to sip in. This transition from experience to complacency is best explained through the “conscious competence” framework:

1. Unconscious incompetence
A rookie facilitator does not recognize SA as an important feature and might deny the usefulness of the skill. The facilitator must recognize his own incompetence and the value of SA before moving on to the next stage.

2. Conscious incompetence
The training facilitator now knows what SA is and acknowledges that it is a skill he lacks. He makes effort to work on his SA.

3. Conscious competence
The trained facilitator now understands how to apply SA, but he needs to concentrate and think in order to use it effectively. Without thorough cognitive effort, his SA might not be as reliable. It is only through constant practice would his SA move to the next stage.

4. Unconscious competence
The seasoned facilitator has had so much practice that SA has entered the unconscious part of the brain and it has become “second nature”. As a result, he no longer needs to consciously think about applying SA.

5. Complacency
Once SA operates at the subconscious level, the seasoned facilitator might missed the natural ‘check and balance’ system that comes with conscious thinking, thus, opening up opportunities for the occasional lapse in attention. Inexperience facilitator requires field time and practice to sharpen their SA, seasoned practitioners too need to remind themselves on the trappings of complacency. Below is a list of techniques rookie facilitator can work on to improve their SA and seasoned practitioners can adopt to guard against complacency.

1. Active involvement – SA is not a passive process, it does not just come on to the facilitator. For SA to function effectively, one has to play an active role and be with the situation. This means the facilitator has to be mentally present, consciously making sense of the events that are taking place around him. Active involvement requires the facilitator to stay engage with the process and be as involved as the participants through the experience.

2. Setting goals – Professor Kip Smith and Dr. Peter Hancock, prominently researchers in the field of aviation and human behavior in dynamic situations, defined SA as ‘adaptive, externally directed consciousnesses. They see SA as an intentional behavior that is directed towards the goal. In other words, we assess what we set out to assess. Our SA is most sensitive towards the objectives we set because our focus is primarily on them. Setting goals will help funnel our attention towards key areas. Clearly defined goals serve as both guide and reminder to the facilitator on what to look out for. Because human’s attention is limited and easily distracted, the way in which our attention is deployed will determine what is read. Before an activity commences, facilitators should be clear on where to focus their attention on, for example, to capture specific learning opportunities and/or to mitigate risk at a precise point. These points for attention could also be a specific time, juncture, person, situation, reaction or conversation.

3. Delegate responsibilities to co-facilitators or participants – There will be occasions where there are simply too many things taking place at the same time. In such instances, a facilitator can either split the area of focus with his co-facilitator (one concentrate on safety while another concentrate on learning moments) or delegate secondary roles to the participants, such as ‘Safety Officer’.
4. Expose to a variety of experiences – Facilitators who limit themselves to a small number of programme types will develop very sharp sense of SA but only in environments they are extremely familiar with. Conversely, facilitators who expose themselves to a wider range of experiences will develop wellrounded SA that can be applied effectively across various situations. For experience facilitators, exposing themselves to fresh challenges is one of the best way to guard against complacency because it reminds them that learning is an on-going process and that no facilitator can ever claim to have enough SA.

SA serves two fundamental purposes. Firstly, it enables facilitators to maintain a high level of safety. No facilitator ever plans for things to go wrong. The reality is, no matter how well the programmes are designed and how clear our instructions to the participations are, accidents are unavoidable. Accidences are after all, a matter of statistics. It is at these points where the facilitator’s foresight, speed of reaction and judgment makes all the differences and SA is central to this process. Secondly, SA supports a higher standard of learning. It is a facilitator’s ability to spot learning moments that are otherwise oblivious to everyone, and make sense of it that would create the most value to the learning process. It is here where facilitators can stimulate the deepest reflection amongst the team because it examines the underlying forces that drove the participants’ behaviors. Behaviors so instinctive that is invisible to most, but so apparent once they are pointer out. Just like the gorilla in the video. “people will focus on procedures and not notice anything that isn’t just part of the procedures”
― Daniel Simons, author of ‘The Invisible Gorilla’





In recent times, as modernization occurs and technology becomes fast-paced, most of us are moving more quickly to keep up with the advancements. However, to achieve the best and nothing less than that, we often forget that we too could become workaholics and neglect ourselves just to devote our time for work. Our passion could just become success and life would hold not much value in any other aspect. Thus, should being a workaholic be widely practiced? This article defines a workaholic and the effects of being one so that we in turn can consider our individual situations and make better decisions.

Definition of a Workaholic
Workaholics keep many irons in the fire and cannot understand the relationship between that behavior and a zero leisure time.  They are the first ones to reach office and last ones to leave. Workaholics generally, prefer to do most things by themselves rather than ask for help or designate someone else to do it.  If they have no choice but to assign a project to someone else, they get impatient when they have to wait.  They cannot understand why something takes so long to be accomplished.  Their definition of the term “too long” becomes “any time that’s not now.”

However, how do they become the way they are?

Reasons Behind Being a Workaholic
Poor time management and striving towards personal success within an organization could be two main reasons for the sudden passion to overwork. Many employees are driven to climb the ladder very quickly and often forget to slow down and take a steady pace to achieve a more permanent success.

Workaholics believe that “layering” helps them to maximize their productivity.  Thus,whatever work they are doing at that moment, they add an extra layer or two on that.  For example, eating a lunch and writing a memo at the same time, etc.  If a call is received during that time, it would actually lead to doing three things all at one time, or as they call it, multi-tasking. A sense of competition builds in them so that they are able to not only sustain but become ‘Champions’ in the rising pressure of the work environment and boost their own self-esteem, not forgetting a greater pay rise and accelerated promotions.

Time especially starts getting poorly managed when assignments are greatly taken on to grow faster. With lesser time on their hands, workaholics then to ‘crash’ it all at once, not balancing between work and rest. Leisure is hardly significant for them.

Effects of Being a Workaholic

Workaholics overly commit themselves to their job and live in constant frustration for biting off more than they can chew. They are unable to relax because they feel guilty when they are not working on something. This eventually results in much stress and anxiety. Being a workaholic does not in turn produce good signals to the mind and body as it can lead to isolation and then depression. It deterioratesthe health of a human being which could lead to various diseases in the future.
Since most of the time, things never seem to move or get done fast enough for them, they lose their temper frequently.

Research has shown that people on average spend 98% of their waking time in thinking about their past or the future and only 2 % live in the present.  A workaholic spends 99% of his time mentally planning and thinking about the future instead of relishing the now. Thus, only 1 % of the time is divided between the present and past reflections.

With little time spent with their loved ones, they tend to forget, ignore, or undermine birthdays, anniversaries, reunions, or other important social events.  Relationships hurt them much more and their people crave for their presence and understanding.

A little something to ponder about: Is it common to hear someone is his last days saying, “I wish I had spent more time in the office?”

Thus, is being a workaholic something to be greatly practiced? Or a change needs to be made for the good of the person, the organization, the people around him and society in general? Let us look forward to a better change for a healthier and robust generation for Singapore.





I found this article online last night and would like to share it with you all. There is wisdom in its simplicity. My favorite point is point 8. Every one has different ways of experiencing flow and to be able to fully immerse yourself in it is a blessing. Find your flow!

Studies conducted by positivity psychologist Sonja Lyubomirsky point to 12 things happy people do differently to increase their levels of happiness. These are things that we can start doing today to feel the effects of more happiness in our lives. (Check out her book The How of Happiness.)

  1. Express gratitude.– When you appreciate what you have, what you have appreciates in value. Kinda cool right? So basically, being grateful for the goodness that is already evident
    in your life will bring you a deeper sense of happiness. And that’s without having to go out and buy anything. It makes sense. We’re gonna have a hard time ever being happy if we aren’t thankful for what we already have.
  2. Cultivate optimism. –Winners have the ability to manufacture their own optimism. No matter what the situation, the successful diva is the chick who will always find a way to put an optimistic spin on it. She knows failure only as an opportunity to grow and learn a new lesson from life. People who think optimistically see the world as a place packed with endless
    opportunities, especially in trying times.
  3. Avoid over-thinking and social comparison.– Comparing yourself to someone else can be poisonous. If we’re somehow ‘better’ than the person that we’re comparing ourselves to, it gives us an unhealthy sense of superiority. Our ego inflates – KABOOM – our inner Kanye West comes out! If we’re ‘worse’ than the person that we’re comparing ourselves to, we usually discredit the hard work that we’ve done and dismiss all the progress that we’ve made. What I’ve found is that the majority of the time this type of social comparison doesn’t
    stem from a healthy place. If you feel called to compare yourself to something, compare yourself to an earlier version of yourself.
  4. Practice acts of kindness.– Performing an act of kindness releases serotonin in your brain. (Serotonin is a substance that has TREMENDOUS health benefits, including making us
    feel more blissful.) Selflessly helping someone is a super powerful way to feel good inside. What’s even cooler about this kindness kick is that not only will you feel better, but so will people watching the act of kindness. How extraordinary is that? Bystanders will be blessed with a release of serotonin just by watching what’s going on. A side note is that the job of most anti-depressants is to release more serotonin. Move over Pfizer, kindness is kicking ass and taking names.
  5. Nurture social relationships.– The happiest people on the planet are the ones who have deep, meaningful relationships. Did you know studies show that people’s mortality rates are DOUBLED when they’re lonely? WHOA! There’s a warm fuzzy feeling that comes from having an active circle of good friends who you can share your experiences with. We feel connected and a part of something more meaningful than our lonesome existence.
  6. Develop strategies for coping.– How you respond to the ‘craptastic’ moments is what shapes your character. Sometimes crap happens – it’s inevitable. Forrest Gump knows the
    deal. It can be hard to come up with creative solutions in the moment when manure is making its way up toward the fan. It helps to have healthy strategies for coping pre-rehearsed, on-call, and in your arsenal at your disposal.
  7. Learn to forgive.– Harboring feelings of hatred is horrible for your well-being. You see, your mind doesn’t know the difference between past and present emotion. When you ‘hate’
    someone, and you’re continuously thinking about it, those negative emotions are eating away at your immune system. You put yourself in a state of suckerism (technical term) and it stays with you throughout your day.
  8. Increase flow experiences.– Flow is a state in which it feels like time stands still. It’s when you’re so focused on what you’re doing that you become one with the task. Action and
    awareness are merged. You’re not hungry, sleepy, or emotional. You’re just completely engaged in the activity that you’re doing. Nothing is distracting you or competing for your
  9. Savor life’s joys.– Deep happiness cannot exist without slowing down to enjoy the joy. It’s easy in a world of wild stimuli and omnipresent movement to forget to embrace life’s enjoyable experiences. When we neglect to appreciate, we rob the moment of its magic. It’s the simple things in life that can be the most rewarding if we remember to fully experience them.
  10. Commit to your goals.– Being wholeheartedly dedicated to doing something comes fully equipped with an ineffable force. Magical things start happening when we commit ourselves to doing whatever it takes to get somewhere. When you’re fully committed to doing something, you have no choice but to do that thing. Counter-intuitively, having no option – where you can’t change your mind – subconsciously makes humans happier because they know part of their purpose.
  11. Practice spirituality.– When we practice spirituality or religion, we recognize that life is bigger than us. We surrender the silly idea that we are the mightiest thing ever. It enables us to connect to the source of all creation and embrace a connectedness with everything that exists. Some of the most accomplished people I know feel that they’re here doing work
    they’re “called to do.”
  12. Take care of your body.– Taking care of your body is crucial to being the happiest person you can be. If you don’t have your physical energy in good shape, then your mental energy (your focus), your emotional energy (your feelings), and your spiritual energy (your purpose) will all be negatively affected. Did you know that studies conducted on people who were clinically depressed showed that consistent exercise raises happiness levels just as much as Zoloft? Not only that, but here’s the double whammy… Six months later, the people who
    participated in exercise were less likely to relapse because they had a higher sense of self accomplishment and self-worth.

This is the original URL: